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SEC23A Is an Independent Prognostic Biomarker in Bladder Cancer Correlated With MAPK Signaling
Clinical data mining and bioinformatics analysis can be employed effectively to elucidate the function and underlying mechanisms of the gene of interest. Here, we have proposed a framework for the identification and validation of independent biomarkers in human cancer and for mechanistic profiling using gene sets enrichment analysis and pathway analysis.
This is followed by validation with in vitro experiments. Using this framework to analyze the clinical relevance of SEC23A, we have discovered the prognostic potential of SEC23A in different cancers and identified SEC23A as an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in bladder cancer, which implicates SEC23A, for the first time, as an oncogene.
Bioinformatic analyses have elucidated an association between SEC23A expression and the upregulation of the MAPK signaling pathway. Using the T24 human bladder cell line, we confirmed that knockdown of SEC23A expression could effectively impact the MAPK signaling pathway. Further, through PCR verification, we showed that MEF2A, one of the key genes of the MAPK signaling pathway, might be a downstream factor of the SEC23A gene.
Selenium Deficiency Promotes Oxidative Stress-Induced Mastitis via Activating the NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Dairy Cow
Selenium (Se) is an antioxidant and immunomodulator that can participate in the control of specific endocrine pathways. Disturbance of redox homeostasis is closely related to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Se is also an important nutrient element for dairy cows.
First, oxidative stress (OS) induced by Se deficiency was investigated along with a possible mechanism of its induction of mammary gland inflammation. This investigation used in vivo and in vitro experiments for verification.
Once the OS response was triggered, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was reduced by regulation of the concentration of Se, which led to the accumulation of ROS. TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 secretion was promoted to activate the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway. This process further promoted the accumulation of cytokines that aggravated the inflammatory response.
Herein, it was verified that Se deficiency induces OS, which leads to ROS accumulation and the secretion of inflammatory factors to activate the NF-κB/MAPK signaling pathway and promote the occurrence of mastitis.
Antiarthritic activity of OA-DHZ; a gastroprotective NF-κB/MAPK/COX inhibitor
Arthritis, a primary autoimmune disorder having a global incidence of 2.03% person/year, is presently being treated by many commercially available drugs that treat symptomatically or improve the disease’s clinical state; however, all the therapies pose varying amount of side effects.
Therefore, it has become a fundamental need to search for therapeutics that offer better efficacy and safety profile, and the natural or nature-derived products are known for their outstanding performance in this arena. OA-DHZ, known to possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, when explored for its efficacy against arthritis in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) model, was found to inhibit paw edema by 34% and TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β by 67%, 39%, and 45% respectively when compared to diseased control.
It was also able to reduce the inflamed spleen size by 45% and successfully normalized biochemical and hematological changes that followed arthritis. In vitro studies revealed that the underlying mechanism for inhibiting arthritis progression might be due to NF-κB /MAPK pathway modulation.
OA-DHZ also showed selective inhibition of COX-2 in vitro while showing gastroprotective effects when evaluated for ulcerogenic and antiulcer potential in vivo. In contrast to the results obtained from in vivo experimentation, there is a disparity in the pharmacokinetic profile of OA-DHZ, where it showed low oral exposure and high clearance rate. OA-DHZ being antiarthritic acting via NF-κB /MAPK/ COX inhibition while showing gastroprotective effects, can be a suitable candidate to be in the drug pipeline and further exploration.
The EBV-Encoded Oncoprotein, LMP1, Recruits and Transforms Fibroblasts via an ERK-MAPK-Dependent Mechanism
Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the major oncoprotein encoded by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is expressed at widely variable levels in undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsies, fueling intense debate in the field as to the importance of this oncogenic protein in disease pathogenesis.
LMP1-positive NPCs are reportedly more aggressive, and in a similar vein, the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) surrounding “nests” of tumour cells in NPC serve as indicators of poor prognosis. However, there is currently no evidence linking LMP1 expression and the presence of CAFs in NPC.
In this study, we demonstrate the ability of LMP1 to recruit fibroblasts in vitro in an ERK-MAPK-dependent mechanism, along with enhanced viability, invasiveness and transformation to a myofibroblast-like phenotype. Taken together, these findings support a putative role for LMP1 in recruiting CAFs to the tumour microenvironment in NPC, ultimately contributing to metastatic disease.
Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Weigela subsessilis Callus Extract via Suppression of MAPK and NF-κB Signaling
Weigela subsessilis is used in folk medicine to treat pain and allergic syndromes in Korea. However, the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of W. subsessilis callus extract remain unexplored. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the W. subsessilis callus of pharmacological activity.
Therefore, we first established in vitro calluses of W.subsessilis via plant tissue culture methods. We then evaluated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of W. subsessilis callus extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The W. subsessilis callus extract showed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
These effects were regulated via suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling through LPS-induced translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. W. subsessilis callus extract also showed antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in Propionibacterium acnes-treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells. These results indicate that W. subsessilis callus extract has antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities, suggesting its possible application in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.
Acute Inflammatory Response in Osteoporotic Fracture Healing Augmented with Mechanical Stimulation is Regulated In Vivo through the p38-MAPK Pathway
Low-magnitude high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) has previously been reported to modulate the acute inflammatory response of ovariectomy-induced osteoporotic fracture healing. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the effect of LMHFV on the inflammatory response and the role of the p38 MAPK mechanical signaling pathway in macrophages during the healing process.
A closed femoral fracture SD rat model was used. In vivo results showed that LMHFV enhanced activation of the p38 MAPK pathway at the fracture site. The acute inflammatory response, expression of inflammatory cytokines, and callus formation were suppressed in vivo by p38 MAPK inhibition.
However, LMHFV did not show direct in vitro enhancement effects on the polarization of RAW264.7 macrophage from the M1 to M2 phenotype, but instead promoted macrophage enlargement and transformation to dendritic monocytes.
The present study demonstrated that p38 MAPK modulated the enhancement effects of mechanical stimulation in vivo only. LMHFV may not have exerted its enhancement effects directly on macrophage, but the exact mechanism may have taken a different pathway that requires further investigation in the various subsets of immune cells.
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